Archive for the ‘physics’ category

Aug 8, 2018

New laser based on unusual physics phenomenon could improve telecommunications, computing

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, physics

Researchers at the University of California San Diego have demonstrated the world’s first laser based on an unconventional wave physics phenomenon called bound states in the continuum. The technology could revolutionize the development of surface lasers, making them more compact and energy-efficient for communications and computing applications. The new BIC lasers could also be developed as high-power lasers for industrial and defense applications.

“Lasers are ubiquitous in the present day world, from simple everyday laser pointers to complex laser interferometers used to detect gravitational waves. Our current research will impact many areas of laser applications,” said Ashok Kodigala, an electrical engineering Ph.D. student at UC San Diego and first author of the study.

“Because they are unconventional, BIC lasers offer unique and unprecedented properties that haven’t yet been realized with existing laser technologies,” said Boubacar Kanté, electrical engineering professor at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering who led the research.

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Aug 7, 2018

Physicists find surprising distortions in high-temperature superconductors

Posted by in categories: materials, physics

There’s a literal disturbance in the force that alters what physicists have long thought of as a characteristic of superconductivity, according to Rice University scientists.

Rice physicists Pengcheng Dai and Andriy Nevidomskyy and their colleagues used simulations and neutron scattering experiments that show the atomic structure of materials to reveal tiny distortions of the crystal lattice in a so-called iron pnictide compound of sodium, iron, nickel and arsenic.

These local distortions were observed among the otherwise symmetrical atomic order in the material at ultracold temperatures near the point of optimal . They indicate researchers may have some wiggle room as they work to increase the temperature at which iron pnictides become superconductors.

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Aug 6, 2018

Physicists Tied Laser Beams into Knots

Posted by in categories: futurism, physics

The technology could improve future precision light sources. But right now the biggest surprise is how many holes there are in a laser figure-eight.

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Aug 4, 2018

Scientists Discover the Great Pyramid of Giza’s Design Can Concentrate Electromagnetic Energy

Posted by in categories: energy, physics

Researchers from St Petersburg’s ITMO University in Russia and Laser Zentrum Hannover in Germany have discovered a fascinating phenomenon regarding the design of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

A theoretical investigation published in the Journal of Applied Physics on July 20 2018 reveals the chambers within the Great Pyramid can “collect and concentrate electromagnetic energy.” Scientists looked at the “excitation of the pyramid’s electromagnetic dipole and quadrupole moments,” or the combinations of outgoing and incoming electromagnetic waves, to determine its capacity for electromagnetic focus. Using numerical simulations to deduce their findings, the research team found that under certain conditions, the pyramid’s internal chambers and the area under its base (where the third, unfinished chamber is located) can concentrate this energy.

Modern physics has provided unprecedented insight into the secrets of the pyramids, which were constructed around 2560 BC. For instance, cosmic ray-based imaging (also known as muon tomography) has been used to see further into the depths of these ancient structures, illuminating a previously unknown “large void” that humans haven’t encountered in several millennia.

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Aug 3, 2018

New Physics Needed to Resolve Universe Expansion Debate?

Posted by in categories: computing, cosmology, physics

Next time you eat a blueberry (or chocolate chip) muffin consider what happened to the blueberries in the batter as it was baked. The blueberries started off all squished together, but as the muffin expanded they started to move away from each other. If you could sit on one blueberry you would see all the others moving away from you, but the same would be true for any blueberry you chose. In this sense galaxies are a lot like blueberries.

Since the Big Bang, the universe has been expanding. The strange fact is that there is no single place from which the universe is expanding, but rather all galaxies are (on average) moving away from all the others. From our perspective in the Milky Way galaxy, it seems as though most galaxies are moving away from us – as if we are the centre of our muffin-like universe. But it would look exactly the same from any other galaxy – everything is moving away from everything else.

To make matters even more confusing, new observations suggest that the rate of this expansion in the universe may be different depending on how far away you look back in time. This new data, published in the Astrophysical Journal, indicates that it may time to revise our understanding of the cosmos.

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Aug 3, 2018

Researchers Create New Form of Light

Posted by in category: physics

#Light #Physics

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Aug 3, 2018

How a multiverse is theoretically possible

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Click on photo to start video.

The multiverse theory could answer questions that remain in physics and astronomy.

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Jul 26, 2018

Star’s black hole encounter puts Einstein’s theory of gravity to the test

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

For more than 20 years, a team of astronomers has tracked a single star whipping around the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy at up to 25 million kilometers per hour, or 3% of the speed of light. Now, the team says the close encounter has put Albert Einstein’s theory of gravity to its most rigorous test yet for massive objects, with the light from the star stretched in a way not prescribed by Newtonian gravity. In a study announced today, the team says it has detected a distinctive indicator of Einstein’s general theory of relativity called “gravitational redshift,” in which the star’s light loses energy because of the black hole’s intense gravity.

“It’s really exciting. This is such an amazing observation,” says astronomer Andrea Ghez of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), who heads a rival group that is also tracking the star. “This is a direct test [of relativity] that we’ve both been preparing for for years.”

The star, called S2, is unremarkable apart from a highly elliptical orbit that takes it within 20 billion kilometers, or 17 light-hours, of the Milky Way’s central black hole—closer than any other known star. A team led by Reinhard Genzel at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany, has been tracking S2 since the 1990s, first with the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO’s) 3.6-meter New Technology Telescope in Chile’s Atacama Desert and later with ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), made up of four 8-meter instruments. Ghez’s team at UCLA also began to observe the star around the same time with the twin 10-meter Keck telescopes in Hawaii.

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Jul 26, 2018

Culmination of 26 years of ESO observations of the heart of the Milky Way

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Observations made with ESO’s Very Large Telescope have for the first time revealed the effects predicted by Einstein’s general relativity on the motion of a star passing through the extreme gravitational field near the supermassive black hole in the centre of the Milky Way. This long-sought result represents the climax of a 26-year-long observation campaign using ESO’s telescopes in Chile.

Obscured by thick clouds of absorbing dust, the closest supermassive black hole to the Earth lies 26 000 light-years away at the centre of the Milky Way. This gravitational monster, which has a mass four million times that of the Sun, is surrounded by a small group of stars orbiting around it at high speed. This extreme environment — the strongest gravitational field in our galaxy — makes it the perfect place to explore gravitational physics, and particularly to test Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

New infrared observations from the exquisitely sensitive GRAVITY [1], SINFONI and NACO instruments on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) have now allowed astronomers to follow one of these stars, called S2, as it passed very close to the black hole during May 2018. At the closest point this star was at a distance of less than 20 billion kilometres from the black hole and moving at a speed in excess of 25 million kilometres per hour — almost three percent of the speed of light [2].

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Jul 26, 2018

Scientists Find Evidence of Liquid Water Below the Surface of Mars

Posted by in categories: alien life, physics

Scientists announced Wednesday that they’ve found evidence of a large body of water beneath the surface of Mars. It may not be little green men, but it’s pretty darn cool.

The announcement, which comes less than two months after the Curiosity Rover found evidence of organic molecules on Mars, adds one more piece to the puzzle for scientists searching the planet for signs that it could support life — or at least could have in the past. And while scientists have long known that Mars used to have liquid water billions of years ago, the fact that it could still have water is a big deal since there’s a possibility that this water may host living organisms.

The researchers involved in the discovery, a team of Italian astronomers and physicists, published their findings in a paper in the journal Science. In the paper, the team presents evidence collected from May 2012 to December 2015 by the MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) experiment aboard the Mars Express spacecraft that shows evidence of a large body of liquid water.

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