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Archive for the ‘cosmology’ category

Aug 14, 2018

Researcher accurately determines energy difference between two quantum states

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics, quantum physics

A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a ground-breaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world’s most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider.

Our understanding of the universe and the forces that govern it relies on the Standard Model of particle physics. This model helps us understand space-time and the fundamental forces that hold everything in the universe in place. It is the most accurate scientific theory known to humankind.

But the Standard Model does not fully explain everything, for example it doesn’t explain gravity, dark matter, dark energy, or the fact that there is way more matter than antimatter in the universe.

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Aug 11, 2018

Star-Swallowing Black Holes Reveal Secrets in Exotic Light Shows

Posted by in category: cosmology

Black holes occasionally reveal themselves when passing stars get ripped apart by their gravity. These tidal disruption events have created a new way for astronomers to map the hidden cosmos.

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Aug 9, 2018

Dark Energy May Be Incompatible With String Theory

Posted by in categories: cosmology, quantum physics

A controversial new paper argues that universes with dark energy profiles like ours do not exist in the “landscape” of universes allowed by string theory.

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Aug 6, 2018

Scientists hope AI will illuminate the mystery of dark matter

Posted by in categories: cosmology, robotics/AI

Scientists are using artificial intelligence to reveal the hidden mysteries of the universe, such as whether or not dark matter actually exists.

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Aug 3, 2018

New Physics Needed to Resolve Universe Expansion Debate?

Posted by in categories: computing, cosmology, physics

Next time you eat a blueberry (or chocolate chip) muffin consider what happened to the blueberries in the batter as it was baked. The blueberries started off all squished together, but as the muffin expanded they started to move away from each other. If you could sit on one blueberry you would see all the others moving away from you, but the same would be true for any blueberry you chose. In this sense galaxies are a lot like blueberries.

Since the Big Bang, the universe has been expanding. The strange fact is that there is no single place from which the universe is expanding, but rather all galaxies are (on average) moving away from all the others. From our perspective in the Milky Way galaxy, it seems as though most galaxies are moving away from us – as if we are the centre of our muffin-like universe. But it would look exactly the same from any other galaxy – everything is moving away from everything else.

To make matters even more confusing, new observations suggest that the rate of this expansion in the universe may be different depending on how far away you look back in time. This new data, published in the Astrophysical Journal, indicates that it may time to revise our understanding of the cosmos.

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Aug 3, 2018

How a multiverse is theoretically possible

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Click on photo to start video.

The multiverse theory could answer questions that remain in physics and astronomy.

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Aug 2, 2018

Black hole hologram appears in a graphene flake

Posted by in categories: cosmology, holograms, quantum physics

Much research on black holes is theoretical since it is difficult to make actual measurements on real black holes. Such experiments also need to be undertaken over decades or longer. Physicists are therefore keen to create laboratory systems that are analogous to these cosmic entities. New theoretical calculations by a team in Canada, the US, UK and Israel have now revealed that a material as simple as a graphene flake with an irregular boundary subjected to an intense external magnetic field can be used to create a quantum hologram that faithfully reproduces some of the signature characteristics of a black hole. This is because the electrons in the carbon material behave according to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model.

Some of the most important unresolved mysteries in modern physics come from the “incompatibility” between Einstein’s theory of general relativity and the theory of quantum mechanics. General relativity describes the physics of the very big (the force of gravity and all that it affects: spacetime, planets, galaxies and the expansion of the Universe). The theory of quantum mechanics is the physics of the very small – and the other three forces, electromagnetism and the two nuclear forces.

“In recent years, physicists have gleaned important new insights into these questions through the study of the SYK model,” explains Marcel Franz of the University of British Columbia in Canada, who led this research effort. “This model is an illustration of a type of ‘holographic duality’ in which a lower-dimensional system can be represented by a higher dimensional one. In our calculations, the former is N graphene electrons in (0+1) dimensions and the latter the dilation gravity of a black hole in (1+1) dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS2) space.

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Aug 1, 2018

A tour of SN 1987A

Posted by in category: cosmology

This video takes the viewer on a tour of a 3D image of the supernova 1987 A, created using data collected by the international astronomy facility ALMA. The p urple area indicates emission from SiO molecules and the yellow area indicates emission from CO molecules. The blue ring is NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope data that has been artificially expanded into 3D.

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Jul 30, 2018

Einstein’s general relativity confirmed near black hole

Posted by in category: cosmology

Observations made with ESO’s Very Large Telescope have for the first time revealed the effects predicted by Einstein’s general relativity on the motion of a star passing through the extreme gravitational field near the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way. This long-sought result represents the climax of a 26-year-long observation campaign using ESO’s telescopes in Chile.

Credit: European Space Observatory

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Jul 30, 2018

Scientists Poke Holes in Supernova ‘Firewall’ Theory

Posted by in category: cosmology

Love is a burning thing and it makes a fiery ring. Black holes, however, do not.

New research disproves the so-called “firewall” theory, which suggests the ring of fire around a supernova would incinerate anything sucked into its gravitational pull.

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