Archive for the ‘chemistry’ category

Mar 21, 2023

Protecting Infrastructure

Posted by in categories: chemistry, economics, life extension

Year 2022 Basically this mechanoluminescence material can bring illumination to the mysterious info of stress in infrastructure so there could eventually be an easier way to measure aging infrastructure.

Both in Japan and other developed countries, social infrastructure built during periods of rapid economic growth is rapidly aging, and accidents involving aging infrastructure are becoming more frequent. The useful life of infrastructure is considered to be about 50 years due to the deterioration of concrete, a key component. Concrete eventually cracks due to internal chemical reactions and external forces, and so-called “moving cracks” that are gradually progressing due to the constant application of force are particularly dangerous. However, finding such cracks is a difficult task that requires significant time and effort. That’s why Nao Terasaki, a team leader at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), and his colleagues have developed a luminescent material that helps reveal dangerous cracks by making them glow.

Mar 20, 2023

Dr. Emily Osborne Ph.D. — Research Scientist — Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division — NOAA/AOML

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, climatology, health, robotics/AI

Studying Our Ocean’s History To Understanding Its Future — Dr. Emily Osborne, PhD, Ocean Chemistry & Ecosystems Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

Dr Emily Osborne, Ph.D. ( is a Research Scientist, in the Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division, at the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory.

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Mar 20, 2023

Electroactive bacterium generates well-defined nanosized metal catalysts with remarkable water-splitting performance

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, nanotechnology, particle physics, sustainability

A biological method that produces metal nanoclusters using the electroactive bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens could provide a cheap and sustainable solution to high-performance catalyst synthesis for various applications such as water splitting.

Metal nanoclusters contain fewer than one hundred atoms and are much smaller than nanoparticles. They have unique electronic properties but also feature numerous active sites available for catalysis on their surface. There are several synthetic methods for making nanoclusters, but most require multiple steps involving and harsh temperature and pressure conditions.

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Mar 20, 2023

DNA synthesis technologies to close the gene writing gap Reviews Chemistry

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

There is increasing demand for synthetic DNA. However, our ability to make, or write, DNA lags behind our ability to sequence, or read, it. This Review discusses commercialized DNA synthesis technologies in the pursuit of closing the DNA writing gap.

Mar 19, 2023

A Trendy New Chemical Theory for Where the Aliens Are Hiding

Posted by in categories: alien life, chemistry

There’s a theory that’s in vogue in astrochemistry called “Assembly Theory.” It posits that highly complex molecules—many acids, for example—could only come from living beings. The molecules are either part of living beings, or they’re things that intelligent living beings manufacture.

If Assembly Theory holds up, we could use it to search for aliens—by scanning distant planets and moons for complex molecules that should be evidence of living beings. That’s the latest idea from Assembly Theory’s originator, University of Glasgow chemist Leroy Cronin. “This is a radical new approach,” Cronin told The Daily Beast.

But not every expert agrees it would work—at least not anytime soon. To take chemical readings of faraway planets, scientists rely on spectroscopy. This is the process of interpreting a planet’s color palette to assess the possible mix of molecules in its atmosphere, land, and oceans.

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Mar 18, 2023

NASA Dragonfly Bound for Saturn’s Giant Moon Titan Could Reveal Chemistry Leading to Life

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, space

Saturn ’s giant moon, Titan, is due to launch in 2027. When it arrives in the mid-2030s, it will begin a journey of discovery that could bring about a new understanding of the development of life in the universe. This mission, called Dragonfly, will carry an instrument called the Dragonfly Mass Spectrometer (DraMS), designed to help scientists hone in on the chemistry at work on Titan. It may also shed light on the kinds of chemical steps that occurred on Earth that ultimately led to the formation of life, called prebiotic chemistry.

Titan’s abundant complex carbon-rich chemistry, interior ocean, and past presence of liquid water on the surface make it an ideal destination to study prebiotic chemical processes and the potential habitability of an extraterrestrial environment.

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Mar 18, 2023

What is quantum cloud computing, and how does it work?

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, quantum physics

Quantum cloud computing makes quantum computing resources available to organizations, academics and other users through cloud technology.

Cloud-based quantum computers function at greater speeds, with higher computing power than conventional computers, because they employ the principles of quantum physics when solving complex computational problems.

Different types of quantum computers exist, such as quantum annealers, analog quantum simulators and universal quantum computers. Quantum annealers are considered the least powerful among quantum computers but work well to solve optimization problems. Analog quantum simulators, on the other hand, are powerful systems that can solve physics and biochemistry problems.

Mar 17, 2023

Logics in Fungal Mycelium Networks

Posted by in categories: chemistry, neuroscience

The living mycelium networks are capable of efficient sensorial fusion over very large areas and distributed decision making. The information processing in the mycelium networks is implemented via propagation of electrical and chemical signals en pair with morphological changes in the mycelium structure. These information processing mechanisms are manifested in experimental laboratory findings that show that the mycelium networks exhibit rich dynamics of neuron-like spiking behaviour and a wide range of non-linear electrical properties. On an example of a single real colony of Aspergillus niger, we demonstrate that the non-linear transformation of electrical signals and trains of extracellular voltage spikes can be used to implement logical gates and circuits.

Mar 16, 2023

Quantum Light Could Probe Chemical Reactions in Real Time

Posted by in categories: chemistry, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

For their new study, the researchers aimed to understand how quantum correlations inside a source material, be it a gas or a mineral, would impact the quantum properties of the light bursts coming out, if at all. “High harmonic generation is a very important area. And still, until recently, it was described by a classical picture of light,” Kaminer says.

In quantum mechanics, figuring out what’s going on with more than a few particles at the same time is notoriously difficult. Kaminer and Alexey Gorlach, a graduate student in his lab, used their COVID-imposed isolation to try to make progress on a fully quantum description of light emitted in high harmonics. “It’s really crazy; Alexey built a super complex mathematical description on a scale that we’ve never had before,” Kaminer says.

Next, to fully incorporate the quantum properties of the material used to generate this light, Kaminer and Gorlach teamed up with Andrea Pizzi, then a graduate student at the University of Cambridge and now a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University.

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Mar 15, 2023

Sniper2L is a high-fidelity Cas9 variant with high activity Chemical Biology

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, evolution

Kim et al. used directed evolution methods to identify a high-fidelity SpCas9 variant, Sniper2L, which exhibits high general activity but maintains high specificity at a large number of target sites.

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