Archive for the ‘nanotechnology’ category

Oct 4, 2023

Nano-mechanoelectrical approach increases DNA detection sensitivity by 100 times

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, health, nanotechnology

UMass Amherst researchers have pushed forward the boundaries of biomedical engineering one hundredfold with a new method for DNA detection with unprecedented sensitivity.

“DNA detection is in the center of bioengineering,” says Jinglei Ping, lead author of the paper that appeared in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Ping is an assistant professor of mechanical and , an adjunct assistant professor in and affiliated with the Center for Personalized Health Monitoring of the Institute for Applied Life Sciences. “Everyone wants to detect the DNA at a low concentration with a high sensitivity. And we just developed this method to improve the sensitivity by about 100 times with no cost.”

Oct 4, 2023

Mustafa Prize winner: Iran pioneer in nanotechnology, its medical advances amazing

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology

An internationally-renowned Iranian scientist and this year’s winner of Iran’s prestigious Mustafa Prize for science and technology has hailed the country’s great advances in the fields of nanotechnology and medicine.

“Iran has always been far ahead in the field of nanotechnology,” Omid Farokhzad, who has won the prize for design, development, and clinical translation of novel polymeric nanomedicines used to treat various diseases, especially cancer, said on Monday.

Oct 4, 2023

Navigating the risks and benefits of AI: Lessons from nanotechnology on ensuring emerging technologies are safe as well as successful

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, robotics/AI

Two decades ago, the nanotechnology revolution avoided stumbling by bringing a wide range of people to the table to chart its development. The window is closing fast on AI following suit.

Oct 3, 2023

Functional photoacoustic imaging: from nano- and micro- to macro-scale

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, nanotechnology

In the biomedical field, optical characterization of cells and tissues is a valuable tool for understanding physiological mechanisms. Current biomedical optical imaging techniques include fluorescence imaging [1], confocal microscopy [2], optical coherence tomography [3], two-photon microscopy [4], near-infrared spectroscopy [5], and diffuse optical tomography [6]. These techniques have significantly advanced biomedical technology and are widely used for both preclinical and clinical purposes. However, the strong optical scattering within turbid biological tissues fundamentally limits the imaging depth of these pure optical imaging techniques to no deeper than the optical ballistic depth ( 1 mm). Thus, their observation depth is superficial and other imaging modalities are needed to explore deeper layers of biological tissue [7].

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI), a promising biomedical technique, achieves superior imaging depths by forming images from optically-derived acoustic signals, which inherently attenuate less than optical signals in biological tissue [8, 9, 10]. PAI is based on the photoacoustic (PA) effect, in which energy is converted from light to acoustic waves via thermoelastic expansion [11,12,13,14,15,16]. To generate PA waves, a laser beam with a typical pulse width of a few nanoseconds illuminates the target tissue. The optical chromophores in biological tissue absorb the light energy and then release the energy soon after. The energy release can can occur as either light energy with a slightly shifted wavelength or as thermal energy that causes thermoelastic expansion. In PAI, the rapidly alternating thermoelastic expansion and contraction caused by pulsed light illumination generates vibrations in tissue that propagate as acoustic waves called PA waves. The generated PA waves can be detected by conventional ultrasound (US) transducers for image generation. Because PAI and ultrasound imaging (USI) share the same signal reception and image reconstruction principle, the two modalities are technically fully compatible and can be implemented in a single US imaging platform accompanied with pulse laser source [17,18,19,20,21]. Since PAI can capture the photochemical properties of the target site, combining PAI with USI can provide both chemical and structural information about a target tissue.

One distinctive advantage of PAI is that its resolution and imaging depth can be adjusted to suit a specific target area. The resolution of PA signals depends on both the optical focus of the excitation laser and the acoustic focus of the receiving US transducer [22], so images with tuned spatial resolutions and imaging depths can be achieved by modifying the system configuration [23]. PAI’s wide applications to date have included nanoscale surface and organelle imaging [24,25,26,27,28], microscale cellular imaging [29,30,31,32], macroscale small animal imaging [33,34,35], and clinical human imaging [36,37,38].

Oct 2, 2023

Team elucidates mechanism for maximizing therapeutic effects of magnetic nanotherapeutics for cancer

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology, robotics/AI

A team led by Professor Choi Hong-Soo in the Department of Robotics and Mechatronics Engineering at DGIST has discovered a method to enhance the penetration of magnetic nanoparticles into cancer cells and their magnetic hyperthermia effects through research on chain disassembly and magnetic propulsion mechanisms using a rotational magnetic field.

Published in the journal ACS Nano, their study focused on the delivery of magnetic therapeutic agents using magnetic fields, an area receiving attention in the field of cancer treatment. It is expected to contribute significantly by improving drug delivery efficiency and therapeutic effects in targeted cancer treatments.

Recently, the development of targeted therapeutics that selectively treat has been gaining attention in the field of cancer treatment. Among them, research on magnetic carriers that target cancer cells using magnetic fields is underway. However, a problem arises when magnetic nanoparticles are exposed to a uniform magnetic field with a general form; they form long chains in the direction of the magnetic field, making penetration into cancer cells or tumors difficult and reducing the therapeutic efficacy.

Oct 1, 2023

Ultrafast dense DNA functionalization of quantum dots and rods for scalable 2D array fabrication with nanoscale precision

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology, quantum physics

Abstract: Full Publication #OpenAccess.

Scalable fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) arrays of quantum dots (QDs) and quantum rods (QRs) with nanoscale precision is required for numerous device applications. However, self-assembly–based fabrication of such arrays using DNA origami typically suffers from low yield due to inefficient QD and QR DNA functionalization. In addition, it is challenging to organize solution-assembled DNA origami arrays on 2D device substrates while maintaining their structural fidelity. Here, we reduced manufacturing time from a few days to a few minutes by preparing high-density and rehydration process. We used a surface-assisted large-scale assembly (SALSA) method to construct 2D origami lattices directly on solid substrates to template QD and QR 2D arrays with orientational control, with overall loading yields exceeding 90%. Our fabrication approach enables the scalable, high fidelity manufacturing of 2D addressable QDs and QRs with nanoscale orientational and spacing control for functional 2D photonic devices.

Dehydration and surface-assisted assembly enable rapid, scalable quantum dot and quantum rod 2D arrays with nanoscale precision.

Sep 29, 2023

Enhanced and Robust Directional Propulsion of Light-Activated Janus Micromotors by Magnetic Spinning and the Magnus Effect

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, robotics/AI, transportation

Advances in the versatile design and synthesis of nanomaterials have imparted diverse functionalities to Janus micromotors as autonomous vehicles. However, a significant challenge remains in maneuvering Janus micromotors by following desired trajectories for on-demand motility and intelligent control due to the inherent rotational Brownian motion. Here, we present the enhanced and robust directional propulsion of light-activated Fe3O4@TiO2/Pt Janus micromotors by magnetic spinning and the Magnus effect. Once exposed to a low-intensity rotating magnetic field, the micromotors become physically actuated, and their rotational Brownian diffusion is quenched by the magnetic rotation. Photocatalytic propulsion can be triggered by unidirectional irradiation based on a self-electrophoretic mechanism.

Sep 29, 2023

New scooter battery can charge in 5 minutes. Can it transform electric cars?

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, mobile phones, nanotechnology, sustainability, transportation

Most of today’s EVs use lithium-ion batteries, the same kind you’ll find in your smartphone or laptop. These batteries all have two electrodes (one positive and one negative), and the negative one is usually made of graphite.

While the battery is being charged, the lithium ions flow from the side of the battery with the positive electrode to the side with the negative electrode. If the charging happens too fast, the flow can be disrupted, causing the battery to short circuit.

StoreDot’s EV battery replaces the graphite electrode with one made from nanoparticles based on the chemical element germanium — this allows the ions to flow more smoothly and quickly, enabling a faster charge.

Sep 28, 2023

Nanotechnology Breakthrough Could Help Treat Blindness

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension, nanotechnology, neuroscience

Scientists have successfully used nanotechnology to develop a 3D scaffold that supports the growth of healthy retinal cells, a breakthrough that could revolutionize the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Utilizing electrospinning technology, researchers created a scaffold that, when treated with the steroid fluocinolone acetonide, enhances the resilience and growth of retinal pigment epithelial cells, potentially aiding in the development of ocular tissue for transplantation.

Scientists have discovered a way to use nanotechnology to create a 3D ‘scaffold’ to grow cells from the retina. This breakthrough could lead to innovative approaches for treating a common source of blindness.

Researchers, led by Professor Barbara Pierscionek from Anglia Ruskin University (ARU), have been working on a way to successfully grow retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells that stay healthy and viable for up to 150 days. RPE cells sit just outside the neural part of the retina and, when damaged, can cause vision to deteriorate.

Sep 27, 2023

Hugo de Garis — Innovating Beyond the Nanoscale, Femtometer Scale Technology

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, military, nanotechnology, particle physics

Femtotech: Computing at the femtometer scale using quarks and gluons.
How the properties of quarks and gluons can be used (in principle) to perform computation at the femtometer (10^−15 meter) scale.

I’ve been thinking on and off for two decades about the possibility of a femtotech. Now that nanotech is well established, and well funded, I feel that the time is right to start thinking about the possibility of a femtotech.

Continue reading “Hugo de Garis — Innovating Beyond the Nanoscale, Femtometer Scale Technology” »

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