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Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category

Mar 2, 2024

Umbrella for atoms: The first protective layer for 2D quantum materials

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

As silicon-based computer chips approach their physical limitations in the quest for faster and smaller designs, the search for alternative materials that remain functional at atomic scales is one of science’s biggest challenges.

In a groundbreaking development, researchers at the Würzburg-Dresden Cluster of Excellence have engineered a protective film that shields quantum semiconductor layers just one atom thick from environmental influences without compromising their revolutionary quantum properties. This puts the application of these delicate atomic layers in ultrathin within realistic reach. The findings have been published in Nature Communications.

Mar 2, 2024

Magnetizing water drops to make them hop

Posted by in categories: particle physics, transportation

A small combined team of material scientists from Sun Yat-sen University and Dalian University of Technology, both in China, has found that it is possible to make a single drop of water hop in desired ways by putting a magnetic particle inside of it and turning an electromagnet on and off. The research published in the journal ACS Nano.

The research team was investigating on-demand droplet transportation as part of a larger effort. To learn more about the possibility of inciting drops of liquid, in this case water, to move in desired ways, they set up several structures.

The researchers carved small grooves on a . The surface was then covered with a varnish known to prevent water absorption, thereby allowing droplets to form when splashed onto the surface. Once the droplets formed, the team placed a tiny piece of metal into each drop, where it was held in place by the forces that held the bubble shape. The entire surface was then placed over a set of electromagnets.

Mar 2, 2024

How heavy is a neutrino? Race to weigh mysterious particle heats up

Posted by in category: particle physics

Physicists discuss experiments that could improve laboratory measurements of the super-light particle’s mass.

Mar 2, 2024

Researchers develop ‘foundational tool’ for understanding behavior of hydride superconductors at high pressure

Posted by in categories: particle physics, transportation

Hydrogen (like many of us) acts weird under pressure. Theory predicts that when crushed by the weight of more than a million times our atmosphere, this light, abundant, normally gaseous element first becomes a metal, and even more strangely, a superconductor—a material that conducts electricity with no resistance.

Scientists have been eager to understand and eventually harness superconducting hydrogen-rich compounds, called hydrides, for practical applications—from levitating trains to particle detectors. But studying the behavior of these and other materials under enormous, sustained pressures is anything but practical, and accurately measuring those behaviors ranges somewhere between a nightmare and impossible.

Like the calculator did for arithmetic, and ChatGPT has done for writing five-paragraph essays, Harvard researchers think they have a foundational tool for the thorny problem of how to measure and image the behavior of superconductors at high pressure.

Mar 1, 2024

New class of 2D material displays stable charge density wave at room temperature

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Quantum materials have generated considerable interest for computing applications in the past several decades, but non-trivial quantum properties—like superconductivity or magnetic spin—remain in fragile states.

“When designing quantum materials, the game is always a fight against disorder,” said Robert Hovden, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Michigan.

Heat is the most common form of disorder that disrupts quantum properties. Quantum materials often only exhibit exotic phenomena at very low temperatures when the atom nearly stops vibrating, allowing the surrounding electrons to interact with one another and rearrange themselves in unexpected ways. This is why quantum computers are currently being developed in baths of liquid helium at −269 °C, or around −450 F. That’s just a few degrees above zero Kelvin (−273.15 °C).

Mar 1, 2024

Scientists create dancing nanoparticles to explore quantum limitations

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

Enhancing quantum features compensates for environmental losses, amplifying particle interactions, achieving entanglement at higher scales.

One of the oldest topics of contemporary science is where to draw the line between classical and quantum physics.


Abstract

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Mar 1, 2024

New discoveries in gravitational waves unlocked the secrets of the universe

Posted by in category: particle physics

A groundbreaking body of work led by Monash University physicists has opened a new pathway for understanding the universe’s fundamental physics.

The work, featured in an international review published in Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, follows nearly a decade of work by scientists at the School of Physics and Astronomy in the Faculty of Science at Monash University.

Gravitational waves have only recently been detected for the first time, offering an exciting opportunity to delve into the mysteries of particle physics through first-order phase transitions (FOPTs) in the early cosmos.

Mar 1, 2024

Scientists make nanoparticles dance to unravel quantum limits

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

The question of where the boundary between classical and quantum physics lies is one of the longest-standing pursuits of modern scientific research, and in new research published today, scientists demonstrate a novel platform that could help us find an answer.

The laws of quantum physics govern the behavior of particles at miniscule scales, leading to phenomena such as , where the properties of entangled particles become inextricably linked in ways that cannot be explained by classical physics.

Research in quantum physics helps us to fill gaps in our knowledge of physics and can give us a more complete picture of reality, but the tiny scales at which operate can make them difficult to observe and study.

Mar 1, 2024

Variance sum rule for entropy production

Posted by in category: particle physics

The entropy production rate is determined from the variances of the position and forces applied to a system of particles.

Mar 1, 2024

How ‘the strong force’ influences the gravitational wave background

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Gravitationally speaking, the universe is a noisy place. A hodgepodge of gravitational waves from unknown sources streams unpredictably around space, including possibly from the early universe.

Scientists have been looking for signs of these early cosmological , and a team of physicists have now shown that such waves should have a distinct signature due to the behavior of quarks and gluons as the universe cools. Such a finding would have a decisive impact on which models best describe the universe almost immediately after the Big Bang. The study is published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Scientists first found direct evidence for gravitational waves in 2015 at the LIGO gravitational wave interferometers in the US. These are singular (albeit tiny amplitude) waves from a particular source, such as the merger of two black holes, which wash past Earth. Such waves cause the 4-km perpendicular arms of the interferometers to change length by miniscule (but different) amounts, the difference detected by changes in the resulting interference pattern as travel back and forth in the detector’s arms.

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