Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category

Jul 14, 2019

Bacteria Could Help Mass-Produce Wonder Material Graphene At Scale

Posted by in categories: particle physics, sustainability

There’s no doubting that graphene, a single layer of graphite with the atoms arranged in a honeycomb hexagonal pattern, is one of science’s most versatile new materials. Capable of doing everything from filtering the color out of whisky to creating body armor that’s stronger than diamonds, graphene exhibits some truly unique qualities. However, while some mainstream uses of graphene have emerged, its use remains limited due to the challenge of producing it at scale. The most common way to make graphene still involves using sticky tape to strip a layer of atoms off ordinary graphite.

That’s something that researchers from the University of Rochester and the Netherlands’ Delft University of Technology have been working to change. They’ve figured out a way to mass produce graphene by mixing oxidized graphite with bacteria. Their method is cost-efficient, time-efficient, and sustainable — and may just make graphene a whole lot more available in the process.

“In our research, we have used bacteria to produce graphene materials on a bulk scale, and we showed that our material is conductive, and both thinner and able to be stored longer than chemically produced graphene materials,” Anne Meyer, professor of biology at the University of Rochester, told Digital Trends. “These properties demonstrate that our bacterial graphene would be well suited for a variety of applications, such as electrical ink or lightweight biosensors. Our approach is also incredibly simple and environmentally friendly compared to chemical approaches. All we have to do is mix our bacteria with the graphene precursor material, and leave them sitting on the benchtop overnight.”

Jul 13, 2019

Welcome to Experiments that Time has Forgotten!

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

Courtesy of Microcosmos ISBN 0 521 30433 4

© Cambridge University Press 1987

fig. 7.

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Jul 12, 2019

Strange warping geometry helps to push scientific boundaries

Posted by in categories: computing, mathematics, particle physics, space, transportation

Atomic interactions in everyday solids and liquids are so complex that some of these materials’ properties continue to elude physicists’ understanding. Solving the problems mathematically is beyond the capabilities of modern computers, so scientists at Princeton University have turned to an unusual branch of geometry instead.

Researchers led by Andrew Houck, a professor of electrical engineering, have built an electronic array on a microchip that simulates in a hyperbolic plane, a geometric surface in which space curves away from itself at every point. A hyperbolic plane is difficult to envision—the artist M.C. Escher used in many of his mind-bending pieces—but is perfect for answering questions about particle interactions and other challenging mathematical questions.

The research team used superconducting circuits to create a lattice that functions as a hyperbolic space. When the researchers introduce photons into the lattice, they can answer a wide range of difficult questions by observing the photons’ interactions in simulated hyperbolic space.

Jul 11, 2019

Super-Asymmetry powered by Wikia

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics, quantum physics

The concept of super-asymmetry is related to super-symmetry string theory.

In particle physics, “supersymmetry” is a proposed type of space-time symmetry that relates two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin. Each particle from one group is associated with a particle from the other, known as its super-partner, the spin of which differs by a half-integer.

While most of the science discussed in the show has it’s basis with real-world science, the concept of super-asymmetry is fairly unique to the world of “The Big Bang Theory”. Amy and Sheldon are working on a new theory or concept for string theory and appear to be on the road to a Nobel Prize.

Jul 11, 2019

Infinite-dimensional symmetry opens up possibility of a new physics — and new particles

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Circa 2018

The symmetries that govern the world of elementary particles at the most elementary level could be radically different from what has so far been thought. This surprising conclusion emerges from new work published by theoreticians from Warsaw and Potsdam. The scheme they posit unifies all the forces of nature in a way that is consistent with existing observations and anticipates the existence of new particles with unusual properties, which may even be present in our close environs.

For half a century, physicists have been trying to construct a theory that brings together all four fundamental forces of nature, describes the known elementary particles and predicts the existence of new ones. So far these attempts have not found experimental confirmation and the Standard Model — an old and surely incomplete, but still surprisingly effective theoretical construct — has successfully remained in use for years as our best description of the quantum world. In a recent paper in Physical Review Letters, Prof. Krzysztof Meissner from the Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, and Prof. Hermann Nicolai from the Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik in Potsdam have presented a new scheme generalizing the Standard Model that incorporates gravitation into the description. The shortcomings of previous attempts were overcome through the application of a kind of symmetry not previously used in the description of elementary particles.

In physics, symmetries are understood somewhat differently than in the colloquial sense of the word. For instance, note that whether we drop a ball from the same spot now or one minute from now, it will still fall in the same way. That is a manifestation of a certain symmetry: the laws of physics remain unchanged with respect to shifts in time. Similarly, we can drop the ball while standing and facing once in a southward direction, once westward, or we can drop it from the same height in one location, then another. The ball will still fall in the same way in both cases, which means that the laws of physics are symmetrical also with respect to the operations of rotation and spatial displacement, respectively.

Jul 11, 2019

Quantum sensor breakthrough using naturally occurring vibrations in artificial atoms

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, have discovered a new method that could be used to build quantum sensors with ultra-high precision.

When emit , they do so in discrete packets called photons.

When this light is measured, this discrete or ‘granular’ nature leads to especially low fluctuations in its brightness, as two or more photons are never emitted at the same time.

Jul 11, 2019

Secure quantum communications in the microwave range for the first time

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Mikel Sanz, of the Physical Chemistry Department of UPV/EHU, leads the theoretical group for an experiment published by the prestigious journal, Nature Communications. The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. This new technology may bring about a revolution in the next few years.

Within the greater European project of the Quantum Flagship, spearheaded by Mikel Sanz—researcher of the QUTIS Group of the UPV/EHU Physical Chemistry Department—an experiment has been conducted in collaboration with German and Japanese researchers who have managed to develop a protocol for preparing a remote quantum state while conducting in the regime, “which is the frequency at which all quantum computers operate. This is the first time the possibility of doing so in this range has been examined, which may bring about a revolution in the next few years in the field of secure quantum communication and quantum microwave radars,” lead researcher in this project Mikel Sanz observes.

The preparation of a remote quantum state (known as remote state preparation) is based on the phenomenon of quantum entanglement, where sets of entangled particles lose their individuality and behave as single entities, even when spatially separated. “Thus, if two computers share this quantum correlation, performing operations on only one of them can affect the other. Absolutely secure communication can be achieved,” Sanz explains.

Jul 10, 2019

Physicists’ finding could revolutionize information transmission

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Move aside, electrons; it’s time to make way for the trion.

A research team led by physicists at the University of California, Riverside, has observed, characterized, and controlled dark trions in a semiconductor—ultraclean single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2)—a feat that could increase the capacity and alter the form of transmission.

In a semiconductor, such as WSe2, a trion is a quantum bound state of three charged particles. A negative trion contains two electrons and one hole; a positive trion contains two holes and one electron. A hole is the vacancy of an electron in a semiconductor, which behaves like a positively charged particle. Because a trion contains three interacting particles, it can carry much more information than a .

Jul 10, 2019

Solving problems on a quantum chessboard

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, supercomputing

Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. In a recent paper, they demonstrate that just a few quantum particles would be sufficient to solve the mathematically difficult N-queens problem in chess even for large chess boards.

Jul 9, 2019

Microrobots to change the way we work with cellular material

Posted by in categories: particle physics, robotics/AI

Some of you are going to want to use this tech.

In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from University of Toronto have demonstrated a novel and non-invasive way to manipulate cells through microrobotics.

Cell manipulation—moving small particles from one place to another—is an integral part of many scientific endeavours. One method of manipulating is through optoelectronic tweezers (OET), which use various light patterns to directly interact with the object of interest.

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